To address this issue, in 2005 Moog introduced a miniature linear hydro-mechanical power steering valve, the E243 Series, which was quickly adopted by the F1 teams. The E243 valve, incorporated hydro-mechanical servo technology that Moog had first used in the US space programme back in the 1960s, when electronics were not considered sufficiently reliable for some critical systems. Moog selected the power stage of a conventional servovalve, as a control element that could be integrated in the car’s steering rack. Using an innovative approach, ‘shaped’ hydraulic ports within the E243 valve, along with springs and orifices were used to replicate software “lookup table” functionality. This approach allowed easy tuning of assistance level and system linearity, to give the driver the precise steering “feel” required. Over the intervening years the Moog E243 valve range has been refined to reduce weight and improve controllability and today the entire F1 grid uses these tiny but essential devices.